Article Requirements

As a guide, articles should be between 6,000 and 10,000 words in length (16 – 20 A4 size pages). In case the paper exceeds the normal length, the Editors’ consent for its publication is needed. Articles submitted for publication in Transformations in Business & Economics should include the research aim and tasks, with detailed methodology, presenting literature overview on the research object, substantiation of the achieved results and findings, conclusions and a list of references. Manuscripts should be arranged in the following order of presentation.

First page:   

Title, subtitle (if any), autobiographical note (the author’s full name, academic affiliation, telephone, fax and e-mail address and full international contact).  Respective affiliations and addresses of co-authors should be clearly indicated. Please also include approximately 50 words of biographical information on each author of the submitted paper. 

Second page:    

  1. A self-contained abstract of up to 150 words, describing the research objective and its conclusions;
  2. Up to five keywords, which encapsulate the principal subjects covered by the article;
  3. JEL classification, indexing all keywords according to the JEL classification system (please, refer to;
  4. A self-contained summary of up to 200 words, describing the article and its conclusions, suitable for translating into the Lithuanian language.

Subsequent pages:    

Main body of the text with headings, footnotes, a list of references, appendices, tables, illustrations.

Technical presentation

Main body of the text should be printed in Times New Roman, 12pt with single line spacing. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals.  Headings must be short, clearly defined and numbered, except for Introduction and Conclusions. All tables, graphs, and diagrams are expected to back up your research findings. They should be clearly referred to and numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals.  They should be placed in the text at the appropriate paragraph (just after its reference).  All figures must have captions.  In all figures taken or adapted from other sources, a brief note to that effect is obligatory, below the figure.


Authors should also provide up to 5 keywords or descriptors that clearly describe the subject matter of the article. These terms have two purposes: firstly, to help describe the subject content of an article to prospective readers; and, secondly, to index the article for retrieval from a database or bibliography. Such keywords might include:

  • country, geographical area, e.g. Sweden, Central and Eastern European countries, developing countries;
  • industry, e.g. banking, retail industry, high-tech industry;
  • organisation, organisation-related, e.g. small and medium enterprises, multinational companies, corporate governance;
  • people, e.g. consultants, trainers, top management, economists;
  • broad functions, e.g. marketing, production management, human resources management, logistics;
  • specific functions, e.g. sales promotion, scheduling, advertising;
  • management and managerial activities, e.g. policy making, decision making, strategy planning;
  • economics, e.g. development economics, labour economics, environmental economics,
  • other processes and subject areas, e.g. industrial relations, quantitative methods, international research methods.



The ISI citations are a must for all contributors (please, refer to References to other publications must be in Harvard style.  That is, shown within the text as the first author’s name followed by a comma, year of publication and the quoted page number - all in round brackets, e.g. (Doyle, 1994, p.23).  If there is more than one author, the following format is used: (McAdam et al, 2001, p.236). At the end of the article a reference list in alphabetical order must be given as follows:

  • For books: surname, initials, (year), title, place of publication, publisher. E.g. Ballou, R.H. (1992), Business Logistics Management. 3rd Edition. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall International Editions. 
  • For journals: surname, initials, (year), “title”, journal, volume, number, pages. E.g. Fox, S. (1994), “Empowerment as a Catalyst for Change: an Example from the Food Industry”, Supply Chain Management, Vol. 2, No 3, pp. 29-33.
  • For Internet sources:
  • Small Business Marketing Strategies: Marketing Research// (referred on 30/09/2002).
  • Martin C.L. (1998), Relationship Marketing: a High-Involvement Product Attribute Approach, Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol. 7, No 1, pp. 6-26 // (referred on 03/10/2002).



Articles submitted to the journal should be authentic and original contributions and should have never been published before in full text or partially, nor be under consideration for any other publication at the same time.  Authors submitting articles for publication warrant that the work is not an infringement of any existing copyright and will indemnify the publisher against any breach of such warranty. For ease of dissemination and to ensure proper policing of use, papers and contributions become the legal copyright of the publisher unless otherwise agreed.